Plato was a genius, a dazzling prestidigitator, with all the gifts of a poet, a dramatist and a philosopher. Critias seemed to have been the most powerful member of the Thirty.
However, the governors, like Demetrius of Phalerumappointed by Cassanderkept some of the traditional institutions in formal existence, although the Athenian public would consider them to be nothing more than Macedonian puppet dictators.
Here is a question to organize this inquiry: One thing is certain about the historical Socrates: Ancient Greek critics of the democracy include Thucydides the general and historian, Aristophanes the playwright, Plato the pupil of Socrates, Aristotle the pupil of Plato, and a writer known as the Old Oligarch.
There were however officials such as the nine archons, who while seemingly a board carried out very different functions from each other. He left Athens in on an expedition to Persia and, for a variety of reasons mercenary service for Thracians and Spartans; exilenever resided in Athens again. There is even one ancient tradition that tells us he was silent before his judges.
He seeks, in effect, to establish a conversational, dialectical relationship among the jurors which privileges individual knowledge and rejects the general knowledge of the many en masse.
During the period of holding a particular office everyone on the team is observing everybody else. It was superseded in importance by the Areopaguswhich, recruited from the elected archons, had an aristocratic character and was entrusted with wide powers.
It is not always easy to know what to do. Homer was saying that the common people had no right to be heard. Thus terms, arguments, characters, and in fact all elements in the dialogues should be addressed in their literary context.
The age limit of 30 or older, the same as that for office holders but ten years older than that required for participation in the assembly, gave the courts a certain standing in relation to the assembly.
This is an admirable goal, to be sure, but perhaps not the only, or the most, admirable one. By allowing a new kind of equality among citizens this opened the way to democracy, which in turn called for a new means, chattel slavery, to at least partially equalise the availability of leisure between rich and poor.
It seems he could be examining Crito, finding out for Crito what Crito believes. Now Socrates at first seems to be playing by the usual rules.
Crito likes Socrates and so wants him to stay alive. In the absence of reliable statistics all these connections remain speculative. You go back to the texts in the original language, so that you can evaluate every nuance. Instead Plato has Socrates represent himself as a man above the battle of politics.
There were in fact some limitations on who could hold office. One wonders how such a cripple ever got into the army at all. No office appointed by lot could be held twice by the same individual. The dialogues have dramatic dates that fall into place as one learns more about their characters and, despite incidental anachronisms, it turns out that there is more realism in the dialogues than most have suspected.Socratic Persuasion in the Crito Christopher Moore Socrates, to care for the opinion of the public, for this very trouble we are in now shows that the public is able to accomplish not by any means the least, but almost the greatest of evils, if one has a bad reputation with it.
When he finishes speaking as the Laws, Socrates reflects on.
In the rhetorically charged law courts in which ancient Athenian lay judges exercised their knowledge of the laws and so decided questions of justice, particularly where the quaestio iuris was most at issue, they exercised some quite sophisticated thinking.
The judges abided by their oath to vote ‘according to the laws’, but did so with a comprehensive.
Socrates’ equine metaphor is tongue-in-cheek (geloioteron eipein: 30e), but recalls the point of his earlier horse-training analogy when refuting Meletus: the mass of Athenian citizens, like their children, can best be regarded as a lazy beast in need of being disciplined by the rare individual who understands what is in fact good for them.
Socrates answers first that one should not worry about public opinion, but only listen to wise and expert advice. Rather than simply break the Laws and escape, Socrates should try to persuade the Laws to let him go.
he will be harshly judged in the underworld for behaving unjustly toward his city's laws. Thus, Socrates convinces Crito.
I.F. Stone Breaks the Socrates Story: Under Athenian legal procedure such specifics were required in a preliminary complaint and hearing before a magistrate, who then decided whether the allegations and the evidence were sufficient to warrant a trial.
The accuser had charged that Socrates used certain passages from Homer to teach his. The generals were being tried for a capital crime in one day—a flaw in the Athenian legal code that Socrates would later criticize (Plato, Apology 37a–b)—but, even worse, they were being tried as a group, in direct violation of the Athenian law of Cannonus requiring each defendant in a capital crime to receive a separate trial.