The following month, amid a wave of violence in which Parisian insurrectionists massacred hundreds of accused counterrevolutionaries, the Legislative Assembly was replaced by the National Convention, which proclaimed the abolition of the monarchy and the establishment of the French republic.
The trial of the Girondins started on the same day and they were executed on 31 October. On 10 October, the Convention decreed that "the provisional government shall be revolutionary until peace.
All of this combined with an understanding of the military and survival needs of the revolution against the armed aggression coming from within and outside France.
State terrorism employs weapons, such as nuclear bombs, whose exclusive purpose is to terrorize and wipe out whole populations precisely because the intrinsic nature of these weapons prevents them from discriminating between combatants and noncombatants, and between military targets and civilian populations.
But, as Engels explained in a letter to V.
Religious upheaval[ edit ] The Reign of Terror was characterized by a dramatic rejection of long-held religious authority, its hierarchical structure, and the corrupt and intolerant influence of the aristocracy and clergy. A few days later the Terrorism in the french revolution Convention dispersed.
Opposition, however, was broken by the Reign of Terror 19 Fructidor, year I—9 Thermidor, year II [September 5, —July 27, ]which entailed the arrest of at leastsuspects, 17, of whom were sentenced to death and executed while more died in prisons or were killed without any form of trial.
The republican army was able to throw back the AustriansPrussiansBritishand Spanish. But this tenet might have to be qualified when looking at the concrete circumstances of the case, as for example, the violence of ISIL Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant against their undoubted oppressors—the Iraqi and Syrian states.
The same could apply, under certain circumstances, to other individual acts of violence involving, for example, the assassination of despots and dictators.
Moreover, the sans-culottes, the scrappy, urban workers of France, agitated leaders to inflict punishments on those who opposed the interests of the poor.
One would have hoped that a serious left-wing study explicitly presenting itself as a defense of terror would have examined the historical record to dispel and respond to such conservative archetypes.
In Junethe Jacobins seized control of the National Convention from the more moderate Girondins and instituted a series of radical measures, including the establishment of a new calendar and the eradication of Christianity.
The Montagnards were bourgeois liberals like the Girondins but under pressure from the sansculottes, and, in order to meet the requirements of defense, they adopted a radical economic and social policy. Meanwhile, on June 24, the convention adopted the first republican constitution of Francevariously referred to as the French Constitution of or Constitution of the Year I.
Regarding individual terrorism, V. Surreptitiously, and with a fair amount of success, these forces have expanded the meaning of terror from the deliberate killing of civilians by state or nonstate actors to many other forms of political violence such as, for example, violent demonstrations and other clashes with police, and even nonviolent actions such as interfering with governmental functions with the obvious goal to repress, isolate, and make many forms of resistance illegitimate and unpopular.
On September 17, the Law of Suspects was passed, which authorized the charging of counter-revolutionaries with vaguely defined crimes against liberty. Unfortunately, however, his foreword does little to clarify and actually muddies up the issues at hand.
This is why many of such weapons and instruments of state terrorism are not neutral and cannot be utilized by progressive and revolutionary forces, whether in opposition or in power.
Loaded on these carts, the victims would proceed through throngs of jeering men and women. It is in this sense that the systematic use of torture violates democratic principles as well as the humanist tenets that Wahnich, following Robespierre, dismisses so easily.
In a final effort the French forces checked the Prussians on September 20,at Valmy. Perhaps most importantly, how much authority would the king, his public image further weakened after a failed attempt to flee the country in Juneretain?
The more one sided Soon after his fall the Maximum was abolished, the social laws were no longer applied, and efforts toward economic equality were abandoned. For their part, intent on taking advantage of the fear that terrorism has generated, the ruling classes and the forces for law and order have ignored or kept silent about the considerable extent to which terrorism—however mistaken and often reactionary—is a response to the very real dispossession and oppression of imperialism and local rulers.
The Girondins were more conservative leaders of the National Convention, while the Montagnards supported radical violence and pressures of the lower classes. The Girondin leaders were driven from the National Convention, and the Montagnards, who had the support of the Paris sansculottes workers, craftsmen, and shopkeepersseized power and kept it until 9 Thermidor, year II, of the new French republican calendar July 27, The Revolutionary Tribunal summarily condemned thousands of people to death by the guillotine.
So just as it has become necessary and more useful to use the term revolutionary socialism instead of communism,14 it is also more useful to talk, instead of terror, of the necessary use of violence for self-defense against any violent political attacks, and for taking power and preserving it.
While all of the orders shared a common desire for fiscal and judicial reform as well as a more representative form of government, the nobles in particular were loath to give up the privileges they enjoyed under the traditional system.
Likewise, all those who wanted changes in EnglandIrelandthe German states, the Austrian lands, or Italy looked upon the Revolution with sympathy.
Moreover, it is far more likely than not that violence will occur given the long-standing historical record of the classes in power to recur to violence to fight off any real threat to their power, which makes violence a necessary response to those involved in the struggle to improve their lives and to liberate themselves from oppression.
In the first phase of the war April—SeptemberFrance suffered defeats; Prussia joined the war in July, and an Austro-Prussian army crossed the frontier and advanced rapidly toward Paris.The term “Terror,” means the terrorism carried out by a revolutionary state, and hails back to the French Revolution; it emerged as an ideologically laden term used in the conservative backlash to that revolution during the Thermidorean reaction of the s in France, and was disseminated abroad by conservative figures like Edmund Burke, and.
Nov 09, · The French Revolution was a watershed event in modern European history that began in and ended in the late s with the ascent of Napoleon Bonaparte. During this period, French citizens.
French Revolution - Counterrevolution, regicide, and the Reign of Terror: The events in France gave new hope to the revolutionaries who had been defeated a few years previously in the United Provinces, Belgium, and Switzerland.
In Julythe revolution was at its lowest ebb. Enemy forces were advancing over French soil, British ships hovered near French ports hoping to link up with rebels, the Vendée had become a region of open rebellion, and Federalist revolts were frequent.
Reign of Terror, also called The Terror, French La Terreur, the period of the French Revolution from September 5,to July 27, (9 Thermidor, year II). of the Revolution: “The spirit with which the king will be judged will be the same as that with which the Republic will be founded” (speech of.Download